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The melodies that accompany each play were also simplified, and are played with different traditional instruments than in earlier forms.
Perhaps most noticeably, true acrobatic elements were introduced with Peking opera. The Anhui troupes reached their peak of excellence in the middle of the century and were invited to perform in the court of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom that had been established during the Taiping Rebellion.
Beginning in , the Empress Dowager Cixi became a regular patron of Peking opera, cementing its status over earlier forms like Kunqu.
This allowed anyone to sing the arias themselves. At the time of its growth in the late nineteenth century, albums became used to display aspects of stage culture, including makeup and costumes of performers.
Peking opera was initially an exclusively male pursuit. There were bans on female performers and major limitations on female audience members making the form a male one composed of male performers catering to the tastes of male audience members.
The last ban was by the Qianlong Emperor who banned all female performers in Beijing in . The appearance of women on the stage began unofficially during the s.
Female performers began to impersonate male roles and declared equality with men. They were given a venue for their talents when Li Maoer, himself a former Peking-opera performer, founded the first female Peking-opera troupe in Shanghai.
By , the first commercial venue showcasing female performance troupes appeared in Shanghai. This encouraged other female troupes to form, which gradually increased in popularity.
As a result, theatre artist Yu Zhenting petitioned for the lifting of the ban after the founding of the Republic of China in This was accepted, and the ban was lifted in , although male Dan continued to be popular after this period.
After the Chinese Civil War , Peking opera became a focal point of identity for both involved parties. When the Communist Party of China came to power in Mainland China in , the newly formed government moved to bring art into line with Communist ideology, and "to make art and literature a component of the whole revolutionary machine".
The use of opera as a tool to transmit communist ideology reached its climax in the Cultural Revolution, under the purview of Jiang Qing , wife of Mao Zedong.
The 'model operas' were considered one of the great achievements of the Cultural Revolution, and were meant to express Mao's view that "art must serve the interests of the workers, peasants, and soldiers and must conform to proletarian ideology.
Among the eight model plays eventually retained during that time were five Peking operas. The endings of many traditional plays were changed, and visible stage assistants in Peking opera were eliminated.
Peking opera and other theatrical art forms were a controversial subject both before and during the Twelfth National People's Congress in A study carried in the People's Daily revealed that over 80 percent of musical dramas staged in the country were traditional plays from the pre-Communist era, as opposed to newly written historical dramas promoting socialist values.
In response, Communist party officials enacted reforms to curb liberalism and foreign influence in theatrical works.
After the retreat of the Republic of China to Taiwan in , Peking opera there took on a special status of "political symbolism", in which the Kuomintang government encouraged the art form over other forms of performance in an attempt to claim a position as the sole representative of Chinese culture.
This often occurred at the expense of traditional Taiwanese opera. In September , when the Kuomintang government participated in a state-sponsored mainland cultural event for the first time, a Taiwanese opera group was sent, possibly to emphasize "Taiwaneseness".
During the second half of the 20th century, Peking opera witnessed a steady decline in audience numbers. This has been attributed both to a decrease in performance quality and an inability of the traditional opera form to capture modern life.
The influence of Western culture has also left the younger generations impatient with the slow pacing of Peking opera.
Such reforms have taken the form of creating a school of performance theory to increase performance quality, employing modern elements to attract new audiences, and performing new plays outside of the traditional canon.
However, these reforms have been hampered by both a lack of funding and an adverse political climate that makes the performance of new plays difficult.
In addition to more formal reform measures, Peking-opera troupes during the s also adopted more unofficial changes. Some of those seen in traditional works have been called "technique for technique's sake".
This has included the use of extended high pitch sequences by female Dan, and the addition of lengthier movement sections and percussion sequences to traditional works.
Such changes have generally met with disdain from Peking-opera performers, who see them as ploys to gain immediate audience appeal.
Plays with repetitive sequences have also been shortened to hold audience interest. Regional, popular, and foreign techniques have been adopted, including Western style makeup and beards and new face paint designs for Jing characters.
To survive in an increasingly open market, troupes like the Shanghai Peking Opera Company needed to bring traditional Peking opera to new audiences.
To do this, they have offered an increasing number of free performances in public areas. There has also been a general feeling of a shift in the creative attribution of Peking-opera works.
The performer has traditionally played a large role in the scripting and staging of Peking-opera works.
However, perhaps following the lead of the West, Peking opera in recent decades has shifted to a more director and playwright centered model.
Performers have striven to introduce innovation in their work while heeding the call for reform from this new upper level of Peking-opera producers.
In addition to its presence in mainland China, Peking opera has spread to many other places. It can be found in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and overseas Chinese communities elsewhere.
Mei Lanfang , one of the most famous Dan performers of all time, was also one of the greatest popularizers of Peking opera abroad.
During the s, he performed Peking opera in Japan. This inspired an American tour in February Although some, such as the actor Otis Skinner , believed that Peking opera could never be a success in the United States, the favorable reception of Mei and his troupe in New York City disproved this notion.
The performances had to be relocated from the 49th Street Theater to the larger National Theater, and the duration of the tour extended from two weeks to five.
He followed this tour with a tour in the Soviet Union in This role has numerous subtypes. The laosheng is a dignified older role. These characters have a gentle and cultivated disposition and wear sensible costumes.
One type of laosheng role is the hongsheng , a red-faced older male. Young male characters are known as xiaosheng. These characters sing in a high, shrill voice with occasional breaks to represent the voice changing period of adolescence.
Depending on the character's rank in society, the costume of the xiaosheng may be either elaborate or simple. They are highly trained in acrobatics, and have a natural voice when singing.
A xiaosheng actor may also be added to play roles fitting to his age. In addition to these main Sheng, the troupe will also have a secondary laosheng.
Dan roles were originally divided into five subtypes. Old women were played by laodan , martial women were wudan , young female warriors were daomadan , virtuous and elite women were qingyi , and vivacious and unmarried women were huadan.
One of Mei Lanfang's most important contributions to Beijing opera was in pioneering a sixth type of role, the huashan. This role type combines the status of the qingyi with the sensuality of the huadan.
Wei Changsheng , a male Dan performer in the Qing court, developed the cai ciao , or "false foot" technique, to simulate the bound feet of women and the characteristic gait that resulted from the practice.
The ban on female performers also led to a controversial form of brothel, known as the xianggong tangzi , in which men paid to have sex with young boys dressed as females.
Ironically, the performing skills taught to the youths employed in these brothels led many of them to become professional Dan later in life.
Depending on the repertoire of the particular troupe, he will play either primary or secondary roles. The patterns and coloring are thought to be derived from traditional Chinese color symbolism and divination on the lines of a person's face, which is said to reveal personality.
Easily recognizable examples of coloring include red, which denotes uprightness and loyalty, white, which represents evil or crafty characters, and black, which is given to characters of soundness and integrity.
These include dongchui , a loyal general with a black face who excels in singing, jiazi , a complex character played by a skilled actor, and wujing , a martial and acrobatic character.
The Chou usually plays secondary roles in a troupe. The name of the role is a homophone of the Mandarin Chinese word chou , meaning "ugly".
This reflects the traditional belief that the clown's combination of ugliness and laughter could drive away evil spirits. Chou roles can be divided into Wen Chou , civilian roles such as merchants and jailers, and Wu Chou , minor military roles.
The Wu Chou is one of the most demanding in Beijing opera, because of its combination of comic acting, acrobatics, and a strong voice.
Chou characters are generally amusing and likable, if a bit foolish. Their costumes range from simple for characters of lower status to elaborate, perhaps overly so, for high status characters.
Chou characters wear special face paint, called xiaohualian , that differs from that of Jing characters. The defining characteristic of this type of face paint is a small patch of white chalk around the nose.
This can represent either a mean and secretive nature or a quick wit. Beneath the whimsical persona of the Chou, a serious connection to the form of Beijing opera exists.
The Chou is the character most connected to the guban , the drums and clapper commonly used for musically accompaniment during performances.
The Chou actor often uses the guban in solo performance, especially when performing Shu Ban , light-hearted verses spoken for comedic effect.
The clown is also connected to the small gong and cymbals , percussion instruments that symbolize the lower classes and the raucous atmosphere inspired by the role.
Although Chou characters do not sing frequently, their arias feature large amounts of improvisation. This is considered a license of the role, and the orchestra will accompany the Chou actor even as he bursts into an unscripted folk song.
However, due to the standardization of Beijing opera and political pressure from government authorities, Chou improvisation has lessened in recent years.
The Chou has a vocal timbre that is distinct from other characters, as the character will often speak in the common Beijing dialect , as opposed to the more formal dialects of other characters.
Becoming a Peking opera performer requires a long and arduous apprenticeship beginning from an early age. Since the teacher fully provided for the pupil during this period, the student accrued a debt to his master that was later repaid through performance earnings.
After , training took place in more formally organized schools. Students at these schools rose as early as five o'clock in the morning for exercises.
Daytime was spent learning the skills of acting and combat, and senior students performed in outside theatres in the evening.
If they made any mistakes during such performances, the entire group was beaten with bamboo canes. Schools with less harsh training methods began to appear in , but all schools were closed down in after the Japanese invasion.
New schools were not opened until Performers are first trained in acrobatics, followed by singing and gestures. Several performing schools, all based on the styles of famous performers, are taught.
Teachers assess the qualifications of each student and assign them roles as primary, secondary, or tertiary characters accordingly.
Students with little acting talent often become Peking-opera musicians. Peking-opera performers use four main skills. The first two are song and speech.
The third is dance-acting. This includes pure dance, pantomime, and all other types of dance. The final skill is combat, which includes both acrobatics and fighting with all manner of weaponry.
All of these skills are expected to be performed effortlessly, in keeping with the spirit of the art form. Peking opera follows other traditional Chinese arts in emphasizing meaning, rather than accuracy.
The highest aim of performers is to put beauty into every motion. Indeed, performers are strictly criticized for lacking beauty during training.
The four skills of Peking opera are not separate, but rather should be combined in a single performance. One skill may take precedence at certain moments during a play, but this does not mean that other actions should cease.
This includes conventions of movement, which are used to signal particular actions to the audience. For example, walking in a large circle always symbolizes traveling a long distance, and a character straightening his or her costume and headdress symbolizes that an important character is about to speak.
Some conventions, such as the pantomimic opening and closing of doors and mounting and descending of stairs, are more readily apparent.
Many performances deal with behaviors that occur in daily life. However, in accordance with the overriding principle of beauty, such behaviors are stylized to be presented on stage.
Peking opera does not aim to accurately represent reality. Experts of the art form contrast the principles of Peking opera with the principle of Mo , mimes or imitation, that is found in western dramas.
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